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“Possess thyself and Transform thyself. All psychosynthetic techniques have this as their goal”(Assagioli, 1983c)
Synthesis is clearly one of the key concepts in Psychosynthesis. We have defined it as a philosophy that sees life as evolving towards unity through the evolution of consciousness. There is an underlying spiritual force behind all that exists, ”uniting all beings (some willing but the majority as yet blind and rebellious) with each other through links of love, achievingslowly and silently, but powerfully and irresistibly – the Supreme Synthesis. ” (Assagioli, 1975, p. 31)
“Why is psychosynthesis necessary? “Because all of us have within ourselves different and contrasting psychological elements which alternate and collide. They often reach such a degree of forcefulness as to form separate personalities or subpersonalities which struggle for supremacy within us. This results in a number of contradictions, conflicts, turmoil’s and upheavals, which may produce serious nervous diﬃculties, and often gives the individual a painful and growing sensation of dissatisfaction, instability and disharmony.
But this ‘human condition’ is by no means fatal and inevitable; we can change and remedy it if we are willing to examine ourselves thoroughly and if we apply the methods that are necessary in order to combine the dissociated and contrasting elements and transform them into a rich and harmonious synthesis.
Synthesis is an organizing and unifying principle which acts in all the kingdoms of nature. We find manifestations of it in inorganic matter in the form of chemical combinations. It acts in a more evident and complicated way in organic life as the power of self-regulation of living bodies, as the delicate and admirable balance between the wear and tear and the rebuilding of tissues.
In the psychological life, the principle of synthesis finds its application in different ways: by unifying opposite vital interests and activities in regard to the outer as well as the inner world of the individual (extraversion and introversion); by synthesizing thought and feeling and other psychological elements around a unifying centre in the psychosynthesis of the personality.
Then there is the problem of spiritual psychosynthesis, that between the personality and the Self or soul, which constitutes the high aim and aspiration of all individuals who cannot be satisfied with terrestrial values only. Another aspect of synthesis is that which unites an individual in numerous relations of integration with other individuals. There is, first of all, the psychosynthesis of the human couple, the eternal problem of the relation between the sexes, about which we shall have more to say further on. Then the synthesis of the family group, of social groups, national groups and, at the very last – as the final ideal – the psychosynthesis of all mankind.” (Undated 10)
Synthesis then involves resolving a variety of conflicts:
a. In the personality between different subpersonalities and psychological functions
b. Between the personality and soul
c. In our relationships, family, social groups, nations and humanity as a whole.
Here we will look at the first aspect, that of the personality. This will necessarily involve looking at relationships because it is through them that our subpersonalities often become activated and expressed. In the following chapter I will examine the synthesis of soul and personality.
SYNTHESIS CREATES FLOW
From the perspective of developmental psychology, human beings are faced with numerous inner conflicts between the different needs from the bottom of the Egg-diagram to the top. These can manifest as ambivalence about our different roles and needs: to be a good mother or have an ambitious career; to find security with a man while also being an independent woman; to be uniquely oneself, but also socially accepted. These are just a few examples, but it is the resolution of these and similar conflicts that leads to an integrated and harmonious personality. For this to happen we must first establish contact with the self, which is the organizing centre in the personality. This is our centre of pure self-awareness and will. It is here that we find the resources necessary to actualise our values and act on our needs.
We self-actualize when the aims of the personality are organized, developed, and directed into creative, spontaneous and liberated self-expression. This is the goal of personal psychosynthesis. The process of synthesis can be described in another way. We must know who we are and what we want: this is the first stage. We must then realize it in action, using our will and psychological functions. This requires discipline, organization, focus, and the courage to be a self. (Assagioli, 1974, p. 22)
Synthesis develops gradually through the various levels of our personality. A healthy body is a well-regulated organism that maintains its processes without effort as long as its cared for appropriately. We can become sick when we choose a lifestyle that makes the body dependent on unhealthy habits. It is the body’s successful synthesis that keeps it alive and well functioning. If we want to use the body as an instrument of the will and other psychological functions, it must be trained accordingly. We must learn how to coordinate our body when we learn to speak, write, move and express ourselves. Likewise with the other psychological functions; they need to be developed so they can cooperate and express their talents.
When a psychological function has been synthesised we can express its qualities freely and easily. Trained dancers can move the body effortlessly. Similarly, if we train our feelings as psychotherapist or actors we can express ourselves empathically and creatively. If we train our mind to think we can express ourselves clearly within our field of knowledge. Synthesis is within reach for all of us, but it is does not arise spontaneously. Disciplined and focused development create the foundation for synthesis, one result of this is ”flow”.
Flow can be defined as the spontaneous¸ effortless expression of an action. The level of flow depends on the complexity of the action. A ballet dancer’s flow is more complex and organized than a child’s playful dance. In battle a Kung Fu master will demonstrate an advance degree of development, compared to the violent criminal who spontaneously attacks. They may both fight effortlessly, but the Kung Fu master does so from a higher level of consciousness and perfection.
A requirement of flow is the unification of our psychological functions which makes possible a liberated expression of the will throughout our personality. This demands much effort and work. To achieve what we might call ”soul flow,” the spontaneous, effortless expression of soulful qualities, such as wisdom, compassion and service, takes a lifetime. Assagioli sees this as the union of the personal and transpersonal and universal will. ”The personal will is effortless,” Assagioli writes. “It occurs when the wilier is so identified with the Transpersonal Will, or, at a still higher and more inclusive level, with the Universal Will, that his activities are accomplished with free spontaneity, a state in which he feels himself to be a willing channel into and through which powerful energies flow and operate. This is wu-wei, or the “taoistic state,” mentioned by Maslow in The Farther Reaches of Human Nature”. (1974, p. 20)
In these exalted states being and doing are one. This is the ultimate flow. But even the self-actualized personality will at some point experience conflict between the soul’s Transpersonal Will and its own egocentric needs and will. This struggle decides the values that will motivate an individual. According to Assagioli Christ is an example of the highest synthesis. ”The most direct and highest statement of the will to unification has been made by Christ: “Not my will, but thine be done,” and its achievement is in His triumphant aﬃrmation, “I and the Father are one.” (1974, p. 130)
SUBPERSONALITIES– OUR INNER ACTORS
What often stands in the way of synthesis and flow are the inner conflicts that arise between subpersonalities. Assagioli himself did not write much about this conflict, but since his death it has received much attention. In different ways, Rowan (1990), Ferrucci (1982), Sliker (1992), and Rueﬄer (1995) have elaborated on his theories. In his highly recommended book ‘Joyful Evolution’ (2011), Gordon Davidson has provided perhaps the most comprehensive description of these subpersonalities.
Assagioli points out that the idea of subpersonalities is not unknown in psychology. For example, William James speaks of “the different selves” and C.G. Jung of personae (1975, p. 71 and 1967b). John Rowan (1990) gives a good overview of the various names they appear under in psychology. Speaking of subpersonalities Assagioli writes:
”It is diﬃcult to realize but each subpersonality that is developed enough to have a will, to be consistent, to think, and to feel, is a miniature personality, and has the same qualities of the general personality. A subpersonality is a small personality on its own that would live in rather deep water. There is the principle of personification, but I will not go into that because it is more theoretical, and I abhor theory. But after all it is not a theory; it is a process of personification. Every psychological element, especially every group of psychological elements, e.g. those that in psychology are called “complexes”, tend to personify themselves. Up to this point it is not a theory. We can observe that.”
As a simple example let us take the different roles we play in life. A woman often identifies herself with her motherly function to the point that she feels and acts chiefly as a mother. So that is a subpersonality on its own – which may be in conflict with the feminine traits. One of the subjects of practical importance – I don’t go into that now – is the conflict between the wife role and the mother role. We may take this up another day, but it shows that each subpersonality has a kind of ego.” (Undated 2)
Assagioli sees subpersonalities working in our social roles and also in the different psychological “complexes,” inferiority, father, parent, and so on (1975, p. 72-74). Our subpersonalities are expressed in our behaviour and reactions and can be experienced as inner self images or inner voices. As he writes: ”Indeed if we observe ourselves, we realize that something is always talking inside us – there are incessant voices from our subpersonalities or from our unconscious, a non-stop inner uproar.” (2007, p. 35)
Our personality contains many self-images and inner voices that we have acquired over our lives. They may represent the type of false self we discussed in the chapter on Ideal Models. As social roles they develop in the space between outside influences and our own inner resources and needs. Subpersonalities are related to the different stages of development reviewed in Chapter III.
Our personality is like a large building with several floors. On each floor there are the “actors”, each one responsible for the different needs of the floor. We experience these as inner resistance, beliefs, desires and fixed patterns of behaviour. The many needs of our many inner actors can cause much unrest in the building. We can experience our inner actors as energy, moods and vibrations with no particular form, but we can also experience them as people who speak and act in us. The feeling of loneliness, for example, is often attached to a concrete subpersonality, “the lonely”, which creates and maintains this mood.
We can experience our actors as the inner child, the teenager, or the adult. These inner actors are self-images we have developed around different roles: mother, father, man, woman, child, brother, sister, profession, etc… When we adopt new functions or social roles we form new and corresponding subpersonalities. They are thus relatively consistent and stable behaviour patterns.
Subpersonalities develop through our identification with our roles. If we identify with something for a long time, we create a corresponding inner image with all the psychological qualities associated with the identification. Many informal roles characterize us without our being fully aware of them. If we were bullied at school, we may create a self-image corresponding to this. Our inner child will adopt a victim identity that will shape the child until other experiences alter this, or we work to change it therapeutically.
Roles can also develop based on an identification with psychological functions to which we feel attracted. These can be expressed as psychological types: “clown” (imagination), “sceptic” (logic), “hero” (will), “helper” (feeling), “the romantic” (passion), “the practitioner “(sensation), and “dreamer “(intuition).
Age-related roles, that of child, teenager, boyfriend, father, mother, professional and many others all inform us with their own qualities and attitudes. Assagioli stresses the importance of the psychosynthesis of the ages in this context. Each stage of development brings important psychological qualities that are necessary for our self-expression. According to Assagioli, the person of an old age can create the psychosynthesis of the ages: “It can be achieved by keeping alive and functioning the best aspects of each age. An older person can consciously re-evoke, resuscitate and cultivate in himself the positive characteristics of all his preceding ages. He can do this by means of various active psychosynthetic techniques such as those based on imagination, suggestion, the Ideal Model, aﬃrmation and meditation. He can further the process by opening himself to the direct influence of persons of the preceding ages, by seeking the company of children, adolescents and the young. But the older person must be willing to participate actively in the life of younger people by playing with them, talking with them, attuning himself to their level.“ (1983c)
Another group of subpersonalities form around what we can call archetypes. When we identify with them these images from the Collective Unconscious affect us powerfully. Film, literature and other media can create lasting impressions in the unconscious. Children can identify with Pippi, Batman or Snow White, or with dark and demonic images such as the witch, the villain or monster. We can also identify with animals, for example the wolf, the bear or the owl. These archetypes contain potent energies that can affect us for better or worse.
As we’ve seen, Maja developed an entirely new subpersonality, “the dignified woman,” that would contain her gender identity. By meditating on this subpersonality and acting out her character, she gave her life and form. Conversely we also worked with a subpersonality formed of a sense of unworthiness and inadequacy. In one session, Maja contemplated her feeling of unworthiness, and a very dark subpersonality appeared. She explored a woman living alone in a small, miserable apartment, an outcast with shabby clothes. Maja sensed deep shame around her.
This woman spoke of a lonely marriage to a cold emotionless man, and how she had been caught in adultery. The woman identified completely with the rejection and condemnation she received. Maja’s empathy with the woman released waves of pain and she experienced a catharsis. Maja interpreted this woman as an archetypal symbol of her inner unworthiness. The “fallen woman” is an archetypal figure who lives in many women unconsciously, often passed down from mother to daughter. Through our work Maja disidentified from the feeling of unworthiness.
She was relieved when she could talk about the “fallen woman” without identifying with her. Her healing began by compassionately attending to her inner fallen woman from the place of the loving witness.
A third category of subpersonalities are created through our relationships with other people.
We can deduce much from what we have looked at here. We’ve seen that our different developmental stages create various subpersonalities. But we have also seen how we can internalize our most important relationships – parents, siblings, lovers, and friends – and create subpersonalities through them. In psychoanalytical literature this internalising is called object relations and is understood to help children feel safe when their parents are not present. When, as described in Chapter V, Assagioli refers to the psychotherapist as an External Unifying Centre, he is talking about the same function because the outer psychotherapist becomes internalised in the psychological environment of the client. A client’s “inner psychotherapist” can be a wise and empathetic inner voice, helping the client through different life situations. This is particularly the case with parental roles that over time become internalised in the child. These powerful subpersonalities will act in us as independent beings assuming the same roles and values as our external parents.
Based on observation we see that our subpersonalities act as “living beings.” They exist in us, but only as long as we are identified with them unconsciously or consciously. They become more alive in us whenever we repeat their behavioural traits thereby giving them more energy and life.
It may sound strange that our psychological life is so diverse and complex. But Assagioli does not speak symbolically when talking of subpersonalities. ”Ordinary people shift from one to the other without clear awareness, and only a thin thread of memory connects them; but for all practical purposes they are different beings– they act differently, they show very different traits.” (1975, p. 75) In Training of the Will Assagioli describes how:
”Ideas, images, emotions, feelings and drives combine and group themselves, forming “psychological complexes“. Thus psychological groupings are created which may grow to the point of becoming actual “subpersonalities”, having a semi-independent life. They develop as the various “selves” described by William James (the family self—the professional self—the social self).” (Undated 12)
In the Act of Will Assagioli writes that: ”All the various functions, and their manifold combinations in complexes and subpersonalities, adopt means of achieving, their aims without our awareness, and independently of, and even against, our conscious will.” (1974, p. 57) It’s no wonder that we can have diﬃculty controlling our reactions when a multitude of inner voices are trying for control of our lives. Assagioli also describes how subpersonalities work in the unconscious and are expressed through our dreams. (2007, p. 53)
The chart showing subpersonalities in the various regions of the Egg Diagram illustrates this. The subpersonalities move and shift position in the field of consciousness when we identify with the roles they represent. As Assagioli says, each subpersonality is ”able to “rise” or “descend” during the activity in which it is engaged.” (Assagioli, 1983c)
It is important to remember that our outer relationships become inner realities. This means, for example, that we all have an image of our parental figure inside us, and that it is trying to maintain our parents’ norms and values. When we hear our parents’ voice inside our head, it is our inner image of them speaking.
Subpersonalities have a life of their own, but they are also stuck in a time warp. They are often caught in the time in our lives when they were created. Our past is their present and they act out their lives in our life, just below the threshold of consciousness. Some of them evolve naturally through life circumstances, but others are stuck in the past.
The last and perhaps controversial category of subpersonalities are those related to reincarnation. When meditating on moods connected to a subpersonality some clients feel they are in contact with a past life. The “fallen woman” Maja encountered, for example, could be interpreted by another person as someone they were in a past life. It is up to the individual to interpret subpersonalities as an archetype or a previous life. The fact remains that ideas of past lives frequently pop up in sessions and we can interpret these subpersonalities as previous selves still active in our present incarnation.
To conclude let me mention that subpersonalities appear only in the Lower and Middle Unconscious. Only on the level of the mental, emotional and physical can these energies come into form. At the level of the Superconscious energies are formless. We experience them as light phenomena, inspiration and energy rather than actual images or thought forms.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUBPERSONALITIES
Subpersonalities develop naturally in all of us as a response to the challenges of life. New relationships, work, and responsibilities forces us to learn new roles or develop existing ones, and in the process new subpersonalities are formed or existing ones are developed. This can lead to conflict between new demands and our ability to meet them.
Our development does not necessarily progress in a slow “natural” pace through one crisis or conflict to another. It is a gruelling business where we live out our subpersonalities through our projections. When through disidentification we withdraw our projections, we no longer live out these inner conflicts in the outer world. We discover that the outer world is a kind of mirror reflecting the subpersonalities we contain. Our reactions are our subpersonalities in action. We realize it is more important to change ourselves rather than others. We understand why we should remove the log that is on our own eyes and not worry so much about the speck in our brother’s.
Assagioli suggests that we develop our subpersonalities by looking at life as a play. ”The starting point”, he writes, ”is the complete immersion in each subpersonality… The goal is the freed self, the I consciousness, who can play consciously various roles.” (1975, p. 75) When we act the role of mother, woman or teacher, and bring our values, resources and personal qualities into this role, the role becomes authentic. When we also realise that we are not the role, we experience greater freedom in relation to the role and ”the less we are identified with a particular role, the better we play it”. (Assagioli, 1975, p. 75)Assagioli’s description of the optimum relationship between the soul, the self and subpersonalities (1983c) can be expressed most usefully using metaphors. These metaphors are valuable tools in therapy and I use them all in my practice. I adjust them to the needs of the client and they are a good example of the educational aspect of Psychosynthesis. The psychotherapist is not only a healer, but also a guide or teacher.
I use the following metaphors for the relationship between the soul, the self and subpersonalities:
The Writer, Director and Actors
The Captain, the Sailing Master and the Sailors
The Board, the Director and Staff
The Composer, the Conductor and the Musicians.
The soul is the inspiring force that contains the bigger picture, communicates meaning and provides the overall purpose. Useful metaphors are the Author, Captain, Board and Composer.
The self is the guiding force, organizing and coordinating the work between subpersonalities. It also facilitates the work of development. The metaphors Director, Sailing Master, Director and Conductor belong here.
Subpersonalities are the executive function. They use their talents and skills to bring the work to life. Here we use the metaphors of the Actors, Sailors, Staff and Musicians.
This cooperation is often lacking. Our connection to soul is usually weak and we lack a clear sense of meaning and purpose. Or the personality may not be adequately integrated and so the self is unable to coordinate and manage the various subpersonalities. This is very often the case. The inner house is divided against itself, and we waste energy attending to our subpersonalities’ conflicting needs. It also happens that subpersonalities simply don’t have the skills to carry out the plans of the Board (the soul) and the Director (self). Whatever the cause the consequence is conflict and an inability to realize our needs.
When we discover our subpersonalities, we also, paradoxically, discover the self. Assagioli writes that: ”Revealing the different roles, traits etc., emphasizes the reality of the observing self. During and after this assessment of the subpersonalities one realizes that the observing self is none of them, but something or somebody different from each. This is a very important realization and another of the keys for the desired future”. (1975, p. 76)
This process brings subpersonalities under the self’s loving governance and leads to the synthesis of the personality. Assagioli suggests the following stages (1983c):
First, the discovery of the many aspects of the personality through disidentification. This requires the realization of the self as a centre of pure self-awareness and will.
”The second phase,” Assagioli writes, “is that in which the existing subpersonalities are transformed and trained by the “director”. This presupposes a clear and stable self-consciousness, the employment of a firm and decisive will, and a constant sense of self-awareness, both as subject and, at the same time, as agent.” (1983c)
The synthesis of subpersonalities implies the release of a “complex”, a painful life theme (loneliness, anxiety etc.) by applying its positive potentials and energies. Serious life issues require working with several subpersonalities over a long time. The interaction between groups of subpersonalities is necessary and usually proceeds through five stages. Subpersonalities must be recognized, accepted, transformed, integrated and synthesized. These phases may be understood as follows:
Acknowledgement requires us to disidentify with the subpersonality, creating the initial freedom from it. The subpersonality is seen, and through disidentifying with it, we transcend it. It is then possible to observe the subpersonality as an object in our consciousness.
Acceptance activates love. The subpersonality can now be held with love and empathy. This softens its defence mechanisms and a loving relationship between observer and subpersonality becomes possible. We grasp the subpersonality’s primary need (its cause). The Self is now immanent, present in the subpersonality as empathic consciousness.
Integration involves work with the will. Our subpersonalities’ primary needs for security, love, status, freedom etc. are met by finding ways to accommodate them in our lives.
Synthesis is the result of a long-term effort where groups of subpersonalities are included, transformed and integrated. Where we were previously blocked the way is open. We experience flow and a spontaneous ability to be our self. Our subpersonalities are in flow under the guidance of the self.
THE PRACTICAL WORK WITH SUBPERSONALITIES
We can apply many methods in our work with subpersonalities. We have already mentioned chair work, and here we emphasize the client’s chair. This is the chair of the self, who lovingly observes and directs the subpersonalities. Subpersonalities are given their own chairs and a subpersonality is given a voice when the client sits in the chair dedicated to it. The chair of the soul can be anywhere in the room, but often I ask the client to stand up honestly with her hand on her heart and look out over the chairs. Standing symbolizes the transcendent and the hand on the heart represents the immanent perspective. Important insights can come from this.
Creative drawing is also effective in identifying and releasing the energies of subpersonalities. Choice of colours and shapes gives great insight here. We ask the client to draw the subpersonality or its mood, without thinking too much. This helps the client to disidentify and he can tune in to different aspects of the problem by examining the effect of colour.
Guided visualization is in my view one of the most effective way to work with subpersonalities. For this the client must be able to observe his inner states. We must be able to see inner images of our subpersonalities but to be able to feel and express them is also quite central. Inspired by Gordon Davidson’s work, my friend and colleague Søren Hauge and I have developed a method we call SoulFlow. In SoulFlow we take a subpersonality through the stages of recognition, acceptance, transformation, integration and synthesis. In the Appendix I have included an outline of the process.
Let me end this chapter with an example of how Soul Flow works in practice, showing how some of the principles we’ve mentioned can be applied therapeutically.
In a session with Maja we created a SoulFlow with her ”fallen woman” (see Appendix).
We created a healing pillar which opened a loving field of awareness where the transformational work could happen. The healing pillar represents the space where the soul and the unconscious are connected to the self as a loving witness.
It is also an exercise where the client learns how to create a loving space for himself by opening his heart to all that his personality contains.
With closed eyes and in a meditative state, the client asks the relevant subpersonality to inwardly come forward. Maja already had an image of the fallen woman and could easily picture her. Here it is important to relate to the subpersonality as a living being, with unconditional acceptance of her emotional state. Soul Flow is a radically appreciative approach where any destructive traits in the subpersonality are interpreted as a survival strategy because it has not been met and seen in love. The subpersonality is now being recognized and the next stage is acceptance.
At this stage I asked Maja to tell her “fallen woman” that she is a living and valued part of her unconscious. Maja told her subpersonality that she wants to hear her story and understand what she needs. Maja listened and held the pain and despair. At one point Maja broke down in tears and struggled to stay focused. I gently reminded her that she is the loving witness and must hold the inner space for her subpersonality. This helped Maja disidentify from the pain so she could send it love. We spent some time understanding how her subpersonality had identified with condemnation, with what had led her to be unfaithful, and the consequences of rejection. Maja practiced being a good mother – a warm empathetic person for her own wounded parts. This is the first step in the transformative phase.
When the pain had been met and redeemed, I asked Maja to inform “the fallen woman” that she is stuck in the past. Maja told her that she now lives in Denmark and visualized an image of her present life. When she learned that her reality no longer exists she became puzzled and surprised. The subpersonality awoke as from a dream; this often has a powerful effect. This reality check is important because it allows the subpersonality to disidentify. Maja told the fallen woman how infidelity is viewed from a more modern and tolerant perspective and this certainly had an influence on her. This is the second stage of the transformative phase.
Assagioli says that subpersonalities can be considered as reflections of both the self and the soul (Undated 2). They have the same qualities as the personality but in order for the subpersonalities to reflect the soul they must discover their own light. The soul is immanently present in the personality through its radiance but the personality must be able to reflect this radiance. This is possible only if they discover their own light. I therefore asked Maja to tell the fallen woman that she also has a light in her heart, just as Maja herself has. Maja asked the woman to recognize her light, and together they explored its qualities. This is important for the subpersonality and therefore also for Maja. There were tears of joy. The light was full of beauty, harmony and aesthetic sense. The appearance of the fallen woman changed dramatically, becoming much more like Maja’s Ideal Model. She radiated dignity and grace. This made such an impression on Maja that she spontaneously renames the woman ”Grace”. This is the third transformative phase.
The next stage is to integrate Grace’s into Maja’s heart. Maja told Grace that there is a place in the heart that contains everyone she loves. Maja invited Grace into the heart space, and Grace accepted the invitation. A feeling of flow accompanied her exit from the dark regions of the unconscious and entrance into the heart space of light. Maja visualized more images of her new life and told Grace that her goal is to meet someone with whom she can have a nurturing and equal love relationship. The arrangement works as a team. Grace understood that she plays a significant role in Maja’s life. This is the integrative phase.
This session was a turning point for the Maja. She was now able to feel the dignity of her inner woman. She now had positive images of herself, which could inspire and guide her in different situations. She had not yet achieved her aim to freely and spontaneously express her dignity but she had taken an important step toward it.
We see how important work with subpersonalities can be. It is one way in which the soul incarnates with its superconscious qualities in the unconscious. When the lower unconscious reflects the qualities of the Superconscious, the soul has a real presence in the personality. In the next chapter we will take a look at the qualitiesof the Superconscious and how we can reap from its abundance.