Assagioli is discussing psychosynthesis therapy with a group of doctors. Why the use of autobiography is so important, and why we must use the techniques on ourselves. There is also a discussion of the effect of weaning that it might cause an abandonment complex
Translated by Gordon Symons from Italian (Riunione dei medici aprile 64) from Archivio Assagioli – Florence
It would be good if everyone could do a guided psychosynthesis. But in the absence of this, self-psychosynthesis can be done; when there is the goodwill to do it, and more than the goodwill, the incentive given by the recognition of its immense usefulness. Dual utility: first of all, individual; even if you didn’t practice psychotherapy afterwards you would have a great benefit for life. This applies to everyone who does self-psychosynthesis. You have the advantage of all your scientific, biological preparation… because, as I said before, psychosynthesis includes the body. Its real name should be bio-psychosynthesis, but since that is too long, we’ll say psychosynthesis; but it is always implicit that it also includes the body, precisely because of the close psychosomatic relationships, ascending and descending. We will have to talk about this in these meetings; more specifically about the techniques of psychosomatic medicine. And then the usefulness in your professional practice. And even here this utility exists even if you do not practice psychotherapy as specialists.
There are two psychotherapies, general psychotherapy and specialised psychotherapy. Specialised psychotherapy is precisely the predominantly (not exclusively but mainly) psychotherapeutic treatment of neuro-psychic disorders. General psychotherapy is the psychological therapy of the psychogenic component that exists in every disease and also in every trauma, in every fracture … So a doctor worthy of such a name should always do psychotherapy in addition to all the other therapies, if not, as Dubois has said “ce n’est qu’une différence de clientèle”. The doctor who only treats the body is a vet. Therefore, every doctor, of any branch, of any speciality, should do psychotherapy. He will often do it unconsciously, empirically, but it is much better to do it consciously, deliberately, intensively. I remember a sentence, there was a great clinician, Grocco, who was a professor of the medical clinic at the University of Florence (Grocco was a pure clinician and in his time psychotherapy in Italy was practically unknown territory) but with his clinical intuition, he understood the psychogenic component. He spoke of: “the neurotic halo surrounding each nucleus of a disease”.
And in fact, doctors, the clinicians who have the greatest therapeutic and professional success are those who have exercised unconscious psychotherapy within their personality, with the radiating and catalysing function of their personality. So these are the two reasons to devote yourself to psychotherapy and psychosynthesis: immediate individual advantage, and a valuable aid to any professional activity – even more so if some of you, as I would like, were dedicated specifically to psychotherapy.
This is your introduction and incentive to your own psychosynthesis.
To do it properly, of course, you have to pay personally. Time, energy and, when necessary, money. But here we have an example: those who want to learn to play the piano to become a concert performer or a good performer, find it normal to attend an academy, a musical institute for years, and pianists often need to practice seven or eight hours per day to get their diploma. Even for the study of a language, or whatever technical skill is chosen, it is normal, it is realistic, that you have to give time, energy, “se donner de la peine”, and psychotherapy can be no exception to this. Therefore, each of you must sincerely ask yourself: “Am I willing to give the time, energy and all the means necessary for this, or not?”. Of course, there is no antithesis here, either “black or white”, as in general there never is in life: You can do it partially, you can do it more comfortably or more intensively, this is an individual matter, but in short it is a matter of doing it seriously and not in an amateurish way; otherwise it would be of little use.
Now the first thing, I would say the cornerstone of your commitment, is to write your autobiography. The method I mentioned last time, the autobiography, is the basis, both for yourselves and for those who want to advise and help others. In each industry, in every trade, an inventory is made of the warehouse; now the autobiography can be called the inventory of your bio-psychic warehouse. If you don’t do that, the base is missing. So the first step is the autobiography; second, completing the questionnaire issued today. They can be done in parallel.
However, since the questionnaire is the shorter of the two, you can do the questionnaire before or simultaneously and give it in as soon as possible. Meanwhile, the biography must be done comfortably, in the sense that it must be broad, extensive, in a flexible chronological order, useful for seeing the evolution of the personality, but with all the parentheses that come to mind. That is, something previous may very well come to mind, or something that connects later, then you can put it in brackets and then pick up the thread.
And another thing: written questions. It is much more useful to do it in writing because you can reflect more, questions can emerge from the unconscious or descend from the superconscious while doing something else and saving time. Then there may be similar things that can be connected.
Dr. M. – Does autobiography start from the earliest memories?
R.A. – Best of all, start with your grandparents. I say that seriously.
Dr. M. – Ah, well, then it’s a family biography. But I mean personal.
R.A. – There is no clear distinction between individual, family and collective, therefore also putting the place of birth, environmental influences, also family influences, especially family members, I repeat, starting with the grandparents, also the region from which you come, all this has its meaning.
Dr. M. – I meant about childhood: even a loose memory of one’s earliest childhood, the first one you have, because how do you start, you cannot start from a month, a year, in short, from what you remember?
R.A. – Not only from what you remember but from what you were told. Now I will say one very precise thing immediately: the trauma of weaning is very important; one does not remember it. It is one of the things that psychoanalysts have found very rightly and that I have found with the sick. For children, weaning is a tragedy, it is a crisis, it can be the root, the core of an abandonment complex. The child feels abandoned; especially if he has had breastfeeding, but also that of a nurse, he feels abandoned when he loses what was for him his vital connection.
Dr. M. – But it’s a physiological fact.
R.A. – No, no, there is nothing exclusively physiological. Everything is psycho-biological. Ask Prof. Mackenzie how psycho-biology pervades all animal life.
Dr. M. – Yes, but weaning is a general fact; it’s not that one can have it in one way or another.
R.A. – No, no, it can happen gradually or abruptly, and the first rule is not to do it abruptly.
Dr. M. – Yes, but then if there is a trauma in every weaning…
R.A. – No, then it would be useless to put it in a biography: in some cases, it is traumatic, in some cases it is slightly traumatic, in a minority it can be seriously traumatic. So, when no one reported anything, in general, it wasn’t very traumatic, but in some cases, it is likely that many of the babies’ intestinal disorders after weaning have a psychosomatic component. This is to give an idea of how things from early childhood also matter. Then all the relationships with the mother, whether the baby was always with the mother in the first months or in the first few years or not; if there were abrupt departures of the mother. In short, everything related to the abandonment complex of which weaning can be the nucleus, but it is not the only cause – is very important. And then the whole family environment, conflicts between parents, conflicts between parents and grandparents; all this affects the impressionable psyche of the child.
Dr. M. – But is weaning traumatic when it occurs in a certain way or because the child feels it …
R.A. – After there comes the analysis where this is discussed, we are now in the documentation, and I say: start with your grandparents and put every detail in even if it seems useless, as a chief inspector says to the detective: “tell me everything, even the most insignificant detail because for me it could have an importance that you wouldn’t dream of.”
So that’s enough for today.
April 5, 1964
The first thing is that I recommend reading, or rather studying, this book by Frankl, “Theory and Therapy of Neuroses”, Ediz. Morcelliana; this is especially for doctors. Frankl is the psychotherapist who is closest, closest to psychosynthesis. We use very different terminology, Frankl has created many neologies, words that he has chosen precisely to try to avoid, without success, the misunderstandings that the usual words cause. However, those who read carefully will find essential concordance under these differences of expression and some apparent differences.
I would say that for orientation Frankl is the one that is closest to the conception of psychosynthesis as I have formulated it. Then comes Jung, of whom I spoke today, but who is also allied in many things. If anything, both in Frankl and in Jung, especially in Jung, the use of active techniques is lacking. This is to try to frame their positions in the field of psychotherapy. So, reading Jung’s books is also highly recommended, there are three or four in Italian, and those are also suitable for non-doctors, they are less technical than Frankl’s. Especially the latest “The Reality of the Soul” and “Psychological Types”, are suitable for everyone. Later I will give meetings on psychological types, but that book of Jung essentially created the fundamental distinction between extroverts and introverts, and between the various functions: it is very beautiful. So, study Jung and Frankl, above all. Then there are also the more advanced ones that both include the good that is in psychoanalysis or other methods, in short, both of them are open-minded, they are not one-sided. Now if you want to ask questions?
Dr. F. – I prefer to make spirals when drawing.
R.A. – This should be analysed in a separate session. I will only say that the spiral is a symbol full of meaning, but that varies according to the direction of the spiral and according to the width of the turns, therefore it should be analysed individually, and this gives me occasion for general considerations. Always remember how symbols have very different meanings, both for themselves and for the relationship to those who have and use them. One of the serious mistakes that are generally made is making arbitrary generalisations, that is to say that a given symbol always has that given meaning, while sometimes they also have the opposite. In fact, now I will say in a generic sense that the spiral if it started from within and goes outwards is a symbol of expansion, of extroversion; if instead it is started from the outside and goes inwards, it is a symbol of introversion. However, this latter meaning can in turn have opposite meanings, because making the spiral towards the center can mean either the self-centered closure of the small personal self, or from the dispersion of consciousness to spiritual concentration. So, the same symbol can have opposite meanings, you have to see case by case what the meaning can be. And the same goes for the downward spiral and the upward spiral. They have opposite meanings and moreover both can be interpreted positively or negatively as appropriate.
Dr. A. – I would like to ask a general question which you probably cannot answer now. I would like to know, in your opinion, what the psychology of form has for psychology and psychiatry
(R.A. – Ah, Gestalt Psychologie, yes).
It may be that you intend to speak about this in some future lesson
R.A. – I don’t think so, because it is a very interesting concept, but one that does not have important practical applications, neither for psychotherapy, nor for self-training, and therefore for me it has a peripheral interest.
Dr. A. – Could it have applications, or does it not have them due to its essence?
R.A. – There is also a Gestalt Therapy book, but I have not found any data that really can be particularly useful. It is more interesting theoretically than anything else.
What would be very desirable is a self-psychosynthesis, an auto-synthesis, the ideal would be a didactic psychosynthesis, but in the absence of this, if everyone seriously starts to do an auto-synthesis at least partially, which includes a self-analysis. As I said, there is a book on Horney’s self-analysis, but it’s very limited from a psychosynthetic point of view because it always stops at these two levels and does not include the reality and the problems of the superconscious and of its relationship with consciousness.
Ms. F. – In the last meeting, you said: try to make the unconscious work, perhaps by starting to draw without thinking about what you are doing. I tried and many drawings came out but one was completely different from the other, that is, letting the hand work, taking various colors, pastels like that. Do you want to see them? Here, this was the first, this the second, then this one, then this.
R.A. – So you are in an order, that is, at first you always start with such unstructured lines, but in the second you already see a rapid structuring, indeed in you it happened more quickly than in others, I would say it is very Jungian, it tends towards the creation of significant geometric symbols, and those which then become even more structured become the “mandalas” mentioned by Jung. Here we have the main symbols: triangle, circle, or sphere if that exists in a three-dimensional sense; I can’t analyse it now, because it would take too long, I would ask you in which way you made the drawing.
Ms. F. – Starting from the center and always widening every larger circle, however, it is not a center, it is a decentralised center.
R.A. – This may have a positive meaning, that is, without losing the central point there has been a subsequent enlargement of consciousness; meanwhile, this is a valid interpretation. It is always a bit hypothetical because it would be necessary to analyse much more deeply, know the subject, etc., but in short this seems positive to me. Did it give you a sense of satisfaction or not?
Ms. F. – Yes, yes, satisfaction but it was rather unconscious, I just followed like this, without thinking about it.
Ms. F. – Yes, but if you want to draw, it cannot be the unconscious that draws, shouldn’t it be done at just any time of the day? Because if I want to make a drawing without thinking about what I want to do, but the fact of wanting to draw, then is that unconscious?
R.A. – It is unconscious because it is not done voluntarily. There are many levels.
Ms. F. – But there is a will not to do it deliberately.
R.A. – Do not confuse the conditions of the experience with the experience itself. It is practically an activity of the unconscious, I would say, encouraged by the conscious. It is like, to put it in unscientific terms, the conscious that asks the unconscious to draw and the conscious lets it draw, so it is the unconscious that draws.
Ms. F. – Because for example in these here, I first needed to relax my hand and what came out are just lines. Then I tried to give a little more satisfaction to this hand, to this aesthetic taste, let’s say, then this came out, but evidently I wasn’t satisfied with this either, and then this other one came out that is something already a little more real, (it’s a landscape) a little more of a conscious thing, and the last was this one.
R.A. – This makes it less interesting, much less interesting, this (the second one) is more interesting as it was done more unconsciously. Here you intervened consciously. It must be remembered that there is no clear separation between conscious and unconscious, there is a continuous interference, collaboration and quarrel between conscious and unconscious, therefore there is no clear distinction – in psychology there are never clear distinctions. But you see these here have a meaning and can also have a usefulness, as a spontaneous, free expression of the unconscious, in these the aesthetic concern has disturbed this. Then then has no interest, it simply shows her love for nature, her aesthetic sense, but this is not interesting because you know, you can tell me “I like nature, I have an aesthetic sense”, and this has nothing to do with you particular, while this one here is a message from the unconscious and perhaps also creativity of the unconscious that can have a psychosynthetic value.
Ms. F. – Now I remember that of this series of triangles (it is still about the second drawing), the first one was made outside, and then I gradually pulled all the others into it until they were in it.
R.A. – This is also significant, very significant.
Ms. F. – In the circle I started from the center and I widened, in the triangle I started from the big one and went inside with the little ones.
R.A. – You see there are the two fundamental data, extroversion and introversion, from the universal to the particular and from the particular to the universal, because you see, these are very significant.
Ms. F. – And the last one is this one that has become much more real.
R.A. – These are less interesting.
It is what I always say, to eliminate any aesthetic concern from these designs, because that gets in the way. So, you see how interesting things are found in the drawings. I recommend everyone to do it, it is such a simple, such an easy technique, a little paper, colored pencils and a quarter of an hour of time.
Ida – That’s right, someone who needs to make a long phone call, if he always kept the paper and a pencil close by, who knows how many might come out.
Ms. X – While I’m the on phone I always scribble, all geometric designs, however, I cannot make curved designs.
R.A. – So I always advise everyone, both doctors and educators and all those who take care of others, to do these exercises themselves first, these trainings, or during them, but to do them themselves because direct experience is more instructive than any theoretical explanation, and also, they are useful for everyone.
Ms. F. – But what use have I gained from these drawings? No immediate use.
R.A. – But you can’t tell from two drawings!
Ms. F. – So, should I continue drawing?
R.A. – Precisely, it is one of the ways of conversing with the
unconscious, of self-revelation, because the unconscious prefers symbols to verbal investigation. After all, language was originally symbolic, the alphabet is only the shorthand of drawings; in Chinese, the ideographic characters are drawings, which gradually became schematic and the letters of the alphabet came out, but the primitive language is all symbolic. And language is also symbolic, as I said, every abstract word derives from a concrete word: “animus” – soul – comes from the wind in Greek, and so on. Now the unconscious remains in part at the symbolic stage and is expressed through symbols, including the superconscious, we must not believe that symbols are something primitive, it is something connected that communicates more directly than words with certain essential realities.
Ms. F. – Here I want to ask this: if after a period of training in unconscious drawing, and after having done a certain number of these drawings, would a properly competent person be able to see, to detect, to try and understand what is the characteristic of this person’s unconscious?
R.A. – Of course. I would say that it has two uses, one, the one you say, which can be called diagnostics, and the other for activating creativity.
Ms. F. – But if I know, for example, that by making a circle or a spiral inwards, my personality tends to self-center, to become self-centered, evidently then while I am drawing if this thing occurs to me, perhaps feeling ashamed to be too self-centered, I would do it from the inside out. Then it is better not to know what the pros and cons of this design are in order not to be influenced.
R.A. – This is a very acute, a very fair observation. However, first of all I said that the spiral from the outside to the inside can also have a higher meaning, that is, of centering, to reach the central “I”, the deep “I”, away from external dispersions, so there is no negative meaning ; the second is try not to intervene; and the third that the important thing is that this technique is not an end in itself. After a given period you can consciously make the designs that correspond to the quality you want to develop. For example, after a certain period, if one wants to overcome self-centeredness and precisely broaden one’s consciousness, then one can consciously make ever wider spirals.
But then it is a different technique: the first is activation of the unconscious, of analysis, I would say of discovery; the second is like grapho-therapy. Knowing that certain traits, certain symbols, correspond to certain qualities, using them to elicit those qualities. They are two completely different ways of using drawing, but they should not be mixed. Now you are in the exploratory, analytical, self-exploration and conversation with the unconscious. Maybe afterwards you will talk about it again and I will be able to tell you “now move on from the phase of conscious use of symbols to psychosynthetic purposes”. I hope this clarification was useful.
Does anyone else want to ask something?
Dr. Cirinei – I wanted to ask you something. A lady, a painter, said to me: “I had a very vivid dream, it seemed to me that I had a boil on my foot, and in the dream it opened up, all the stuff came out and it healed. Now, when I woke up, I felt happy all day and I felt that it was the influence of this dream “, but she could not explain it. Is it possible that a dream has an impact on conscious life? Ah, before she had said “when I went back to sleep I continued the same dream”.
R.A. – Well, not only is it possible but it is usual, it is normal for dreams to influence waking life, only that they are so unconscious in our unconscious (sorry for the pun) that we do not notice it. In fact, often one wakes up in a certain state of mind, positive or negative, without knowing why, then some accident of the day makes one remember a given dream, by association, and that gives the key to the mood on awakening. And this is very important because the unconscious influences us continuously, and the less we notice it, the more it does.
Dr. A. – What you have said to me now happens very often, to find myself in moods that I don’t understand, and then an episode during the day reminds me of a dream that determined them.
R.A. – Here you see a full confirmation of this. Now it is good to begin to know the unconscious, not to be victims of it, not to be joking around with it, and not to attribute to external circumstances, or even worse to people, things that are due instead to what is in us.
April 12, 1964
I would say your education for psychosynthetic work both in the medical, educational and social fields. I speak of your education because it never ends; I too continue to educate myself, and I always find something more, both from experience and also with readings that present new points of view, new techniques, it’s all happening now in this field, so it is good to prepare as much as possible. Here, did you want to say something?
Dr. S. – I began using the psychosynthesis method with two of my patients, one of whom has already completed the psychosynthetic process, most effectively, because he was a family and social misfit in certain aspects, a young man who didn’t finish his degree because he was a family misfit, he had family problems, a complex towards his father, he considered himself inferior to his father and said that he wanted to show his father that he could go it alone, this is his self-sufficiency, and this had brought disharmony between the father, the son and even the mother – he is an only child. And then he had done practically every job without completing any of them, without establishing himself in a way that would have given him an independent social position; so he tried to make himself independent of the family, but he did not manage it.
By means of the method of psychosynthesis he was able to effectively remove these barriers that separated him from his family and then to obtain a family harmony that now allows him to follow the path that his father had shown him, so practically he was perfectly able to tidy up his life, to take a position in that his father who is old is leaving him …
R.A. – Which means did you use above all, because psychosynthesis is very vast?
Dr. S. – Many, your outline that you gave us last year, and therefore all the psychoanalytic tests first, and afterwards a method we call educational psychosynthesis adapting them to his own lessons, in short by developing them. I was very happy with this.
Mr. to D. – Excuse me, what do you do?
Dr. S. – I am a doctor, but my passion would be to do psychosomatic medicine.
R.A. – But you can still do that.
Dr. S. – That yes, I can always do it, but in short we have to struggle a bit because unfortunately the mentality of most of the colleagues is not, let’s say, straightforward, in this sense.
R.A. – The point I always insist on is that we should, every doctor, every educator, should use the techniques on himself. First of all for their own benefit, to fuel their efficiency, and then because direct experience is irreplaceable. They can then be applied with much greater skill and conviction when we have used them ourselves.
Dr. S. – I didn’t mention that I had done self-psychosynthesis before I started applying it.
R.A. – Very well, and that never ends, it lasts a lifetime, because psychosynthesis does not have a static goal, of static perfection, this perfection does not exist, we are in an imperfect universe, all are imperfect and in the process of improvement. But you must always have this humble and dynamic attitude at the same time.
Ms. D. – I am the latest arrival and I will certainly be asking superfluous questions, but I wanted to ask with what checks do you say: “I have done these experiments on myself”, at what point you could check that you were able to represent this chart, in short, to yourself?
Dr. S. – They are personal experiences. At a certain moment, following a pattern, through exercises, we get to have personal experiences which at a certain moment are also a little difficult to define objectively, that’s true. However, when we begin to do it to others, we realise that in others they also correspond to our experiences and then this comforts us. The experience of others gives confirms the results for us.
Ms. F. – Because practically really perfect auto-psychosynthesis cannot be done because it depends on our subconscious. And so it never ends, it is not that one can say: here, I have achieved a result, we have to get into the habit of doing it continuously in ourselves.
R.A. – It is a case of being continuous “directors” in our inner theater.
Ms. D. – Because for example in Jungian practice there is a personal analysis, after which if one discovers in the destiny of that individual the ability to become a therapist, a training is started. This training cannot begin other than at a certain level of personal analysis, that is, of personal progress, no? This is established by the analyst. For example, in Jungian analysis, a Jungian self-analysis is not done. Nor can we define ourselves as therapists, by ourselves.
R.A. – You see here it is necessary to explain clearly some differences between psychosynthesis and the Jungian method, which, moreover, is one of the closest to psychosynthesis. The difference here is this: first of all, that we consider the existence of what Maeder has called “le médecin intérieur” – the internal doctor – that is, this faculty of splitting, not pathological but I would say supernormally in a certain sense, and therefore we can truly act upon ourselves both educationally and therapeutically. There is this possibility, and this I believe it to be a fact, not a theory; it works, you can do it, and therefore you can do a self-synthesis.
And secondly, this which, as I also said in the Manual of Techniques of Psychosynthesis, the various phases of a psychosynthesis can be carried out in parallel, both on ourselves and on the sick. That is, while doing the analysis, the awareness of the unconscious, the use of the energies that are released and all that, at the same time you can at the conscious level and the middle unconscious do the exercises, these exercises we do here, can be done independently of the phases and success of the analysis, because they concern other functions, other elements, and they meanwhile reinforce the power of self-awareness of the ego and make it more and more able “to cope with”, to face up to assimilating the elements that come from the unconscious.
So there is no conflict here; they are different techniques that target sectors, different spheres of the psyche and therefore do not interfere with each other. In short, active training and development techniques can go very well with all that is, for example, the Jungian method. They target other sectors, but are not generally in conflict, they do not hinder Jungian analysis in the least.
They are terminology: spontaneity of the unconscious and action on the unconscious are not contradictory at all. They address different elements of the unconscious. Now to say, to use other language, gaining awareness of the Self and facilitating the flow from the unconscious is not at all in contrast with the active action of disciplining and using the energies of the lower unconscious. This is what I especially wanted to make clear. I repeat they are not theories but they are things that we see in practice, especially those who work with the sick. It is precisely the ability, the wisdom, the experience of the doctor which will accentuate one side, or the other, to alternate them, to unite them according to the existential situation of each patient. It is not possible to make precise schemes, but in general they are these, the various techniques are not excluded but can be associated or alternated appropriately. I would say, there is nothing in the Jungian method that cannot be accepted in psychosynthesis, but there are techniques that are not in that method that can possibly be associated. This would be the position of psychosynthesis.
Ms. D. – Yes, of course, there is no mention of the success of either method. In fact, there are many ways of which some are appropriate.
R.A. – Success proves nothing, because there are so many imponderable elements. There are all the elements of interpersonal action, from unconscious to unconscious, there is the release of internal healing energies that can be stimulated in various ways, so in fact all schools of psychotherapy can sincerely boast of successes. Even those in which there are extreme unilateral positions or misunderstandings, for example the persuasion of Dubois, who believes he is only rational but instead has a suggestive coefficient and an unavoidable personal influence, but in any case, believing that he is simply persuading Dubois has had extraordinary results, and the good Coué also had excellent results with his simplistic formula. So fortunately, even partial, theoretically questionable methods produce successes, and this is very encouraging.
But this has given me the opportunity to say something that is very important for those who are working, to overcome hesitations, for those who are afraid of not knowing enough, of not being skilled enough, and all that. In the first place, “chez les aveugles le borgne est roi” (it was in Latin but I didn’t know how to put it). With the psychotherapeutic nihilism that exists in the medical field, not only, but in the involuntary iatrogenic action of the doctors, which produce iatrogenic diseases, as Frankl righly says, in the face of this, any positive, even elementary, psychotherapy is welcome. And so, in interpersonal relationships, many mistakes are made, so gross in interpersonal relationships, that instead, even using them imperfectly, even a little of the techniques of interpersonal psychosynthesis is already very useful. And above all, you learn by using it.
Any other comments?
Even in the educational field such gross mistakes are made by parents and teachers that even a particle of psychosynthetic education is something positive.
Ms. D. – About what she said about the catharsis (the long story of the child who punches the pull-over) about the discharge of aggression …
R.A. – (notes) Talk about the method of making oneself look in the mirror when one is angry, then about recording on the tape recorder of what one says when angry, etc., avoid saying the word ‘I’, decentralisation.